Bathmate Produces Pain
In our evaluation of the Bathmate we examined every penis pump that are part of the Hydro series, including Hydromax, Hydro, Hydromax, and Hydroextreme models. We provide in-depth testing and analysis services. Bathmate Produces Pain
With over one million delighted customers, a customer satisfaction rate of 95 and a patent-pending method which increases the size of the penis by an average of 2 to 3 inches up to 5,
Bathmate’s penis pumps that are vacuum-filled have a commanding presence in the market for products to enhance the male appearance.
The reason is that it can be used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction, Peyronie’s disease, rehabilitation following prostate surgeries, an astronomical increase in penis length and girth, or an increase in sexual pleasure, erectile disorder (ED) or Peyronie’s disease (Peyronie’s), and enhanced sexual pleasure: erectile enhancement
Everything you should know about Bathmate Hydropumps can be found in this article.SHOP BATHMATE
Bathmate Review: What is Bathmate Penis Pump?
These are the four essential elements you need to know:
1.) The Tube in which you are supposed to put your penis.
2) The Comfort Ring is a ring that should be worn at the base on the male male genitalia (without testing the testicles). The reason for the name is due to the ability to push the Bathmate tightly into your body. This prevents any air from entering and leads to the development of a vacuum. You won’t be able to increase in the length of your penis or increase its circumference if your seal isn’t correct.
3) The Pump. When you press the penis against your pelvic floor then the water is ejected by your grip, and then when you release your grip, your penis is “pumped” by creating a vacuum pressure. The penis is a resilient skin that can endure repeated usage. You have complete control thanks to the fact that you can squeeze it lightly or with a firm force.
4) The Latch Valve. It lets you adjust the pressure and can be opened and closed with only one hand thanks because of its ergonomically designed.
How Does a Bathmate Hydropump Work?
In the event that the tube gets filled with water from it’s Bath or Shower, the water pushes out the air through the tube’s interior. tube.
After you have inserted your penis into the tube, you then press your Bathmate with your body at the bottom of your penis while holding it inside the tube.
Since the comfort ring is pressed against your body, it is impossible for any air to pass through and create an air vacuum.
When you pump water from the tube, a natural process results in the vacuum pressure to draw the blood from your penis.
This draws blood into your penis to offset the pressure shift inside the tube, which puts the heart at a lower pressure. An erection is caused by an increase in the flow of blood around the penis, and its duration is determined by how sexually stimulated the individual is.
An erection could last as long as half an hour. If you want to grow the size of your penis you’ll have to work it on a regular basis.
Gains to the length of your penis are a requirement for a program similar to how the growth of muscles does.
Bathmate recommends using your hydropump daily for at least 4-6 months for fifteen minutes in total divided into three times of 5 minute each (a total of three 5 minute use).
As your penis gets larger, you will need to replace your old Bathmate with one which is one size bigger.
Similar to how you would raise the weight of dumbbells you are using when lifting weights.
How Do I Use a Bathmate Hydropump?
No matter which penile pump from the Bathmate Hydropump product line–the Hydro7 or the HydroMax or the HydroExtreme that you choose as the one that will help you achieve your objectives efficiently The method by which you apply each product to your penis will be similar.
1.) Allow yourself 5 moments to soak warm water to soften the skin on your penis and scrotum.
This will decrease the chances that your testicles will get drawn inside the unit. When you are ready to utilize the Bathmate device, make sure to ensure that your testicles are away from the tube by drawing them back with your hand that isn’t being used to position the device.
Although there isn’t any danger of getting hurt in this scenario It would be uncomfortable.
2) While you’re inside the bath, turn your Bathmate upside down so that it’s being sprayed with water, but ensure that the black hole at the top of the device is shut.
There is no need to shut the clasp on your Bathmate when you plan to be using it in the bathtub. all you have to do is submerge the device in the water.
3.) Place your sagging penis into the tube while pressing your Bathmate firmly onto your pubic bone to make sure that the device is properly sealed.
Bathmate penis pump Bathmate penis pump can be tilted either downwards or upwards depending on what feels more comfortable to the user.
4) To start pumping begin by removing the cap with the black color from the device’s bottom and then, open the cap.
Every time you pump, you will see short bursts of water to be released.
The penis being pulled into the chamber. You will be able to feel stretch of the skin on your front.
Due to the pressure shift, the blood vessels that line the penile region will begin to dilate that will result in the development of an erection.
Because of the way the water distorts vision, the circumference of your penis will look like it’s gotten larger.
5) Before removing your tube’s penis, remove the quick-release valve by pushing the valve cap backwards to relieve the vacuum.
This should be done prior to removing your penis from the tube. If your Bathmate is not inserted firmly enough into your pubic bone in order to seal the device, pumping while you shower may be more difficult since air can get in and decrease suction.
This can happen if the device is not secured properly.
Start pumping as soon as the cap that is black at the top of the device is removed; if you don’t the water will pour from your Bathmate Hydropump. If you find that air has gotten trapped between the comfort rings and the pump, you could discover that taking off the comfort ring before filling it and changing it after pumping makes the process simpler.
More pressure can be obtained by using pumps that are shorter and faster while lower pressure could be achieved by using slow pumps.
It is helpful to release the vacuum, then refill the device, then start pumping two or three times over a 15 to 20 minute session.
This will help you achieve the greatest gains you can through each exercise.SHOP BATHMATE
Are Bathmate Hydropumps Safe To Use?
As long as they are properly used and the guidelines provided by the manufacturer are followed, the Bathmate vacuum pumps will not cause any harmful undesirable side effects and are non-invasive.
Penis extenders can be a great alternative to conventional penis pumps. Penis injuries can happen, among the more frequent causes is over-pumping of the genitalia.
If it is done too often or for too long a period of time, excessive pumping and improper use could cause damage to the tissues, which may result in less and less painful erections.
“Men will over-pump,” says Dr. Christopher Fox, a senior lecturer in sexual health at the University of Sydney.
Because of this, there is a possibility of injury to the penis’s vascular system.
It is strongly recommended that the procedure be carried out by either a sex therapist who knows what they are doing or another pumper who has previous expertise with the procedure.
The advice of seasoned users is to make sure that the water is warm. apply pressure to the penis in order to relax muscles prior to beginning the exercise, and begin by introducing a beginner’s routine that takes between five and ten minutes each day.
Gradually, you can progress to sessions lasting twenty minutes.
There’s an exception to this rule in the case of taking warfarin or another kind of anticoagulant that thins blood, or you suffer from any condition that affects how your blood is clots.
Are there any conditions that permit the usage of Bathmate Hydropumps or another type of penile pump is regarded to be risk-free?
Fluid retention is one of the negative side effects often associated with the use of the penile pump which is water-based.
It occurs when the suction that drawn blood flow into the penis is also drawing in fluid. This is a sign that the penis has reached its maximum capacity.
As a consequence of this the skin that covers the penis becomes swollen, and the penis’s circumference also grows.
This has no impact on the growth of the penis, but it may cause an enlargement in the shape of a doughnut at the base of your penile’s glans.
After twenty-four hours, this should go off, though it is dependent on how much fluid retention you have. Based on the suggestions made by Bathmate, the most effective method of avoiding the retention of fluid is to break up longer sessions lasting between 15 and 20 minutes into shorter ones that last 4-5 minutes.
Which is Better, Bathmate Hydropumps or Traditional Air Pumps?
Short answer Short answer: Bathmate Hydropumps.
The benefits inherent to warm water, making the penis’s tissues more elastic and enhances natural blood flow by dilation of the vascular system, are used in Bathmate pumps in order to maximize their effectiveness.
The effects of warmth are conditioned on nerves, which stops discomfort from occurring when you stretch the muscles, something users of standard air vacuum pumps frequently have reported experiencing.
This effect can be replicated by first applying a warm towel to one’s penis for a couple of minutes before using a standard pump.
If you do, however, use the pump before the game the time you spend on preparation equals longer time away from the game.
It’s clear which one of two options – having the feature integrated into the routine of pumping or adding an additional step-will give you the highest degree of ease.
When using air pumps it is necessary to keep the penis ‘ suppleness throughout the stretching process However, this requirement can be avoided when water is utilized.
Water is more dense than air, and can provide an equal distribution across the penis as a result of this characteristic.
Bruising is one of the side effects of using air pumps. It’s caused by areas of the penis which have excessive pressure due to an uneven distribution of air.
This might result in bleeding beneath the skin and tiny red spots on your penis. A gauge that shows the current pressure is typically found on pumps that are traditional.
If you reach too high it is impossible to let the pressure go, and air will continue to compress inside the tube even if there is no method to release it.
It is your responsibility to determine how much pressure is enough pressure and to ensure that it is not over.
Are you aware of what the appropriate air pressure is for a specific situation?
If you pump too fast or too hard the one-finger valve of Bathmate Hydropumps will be able to relieve the pressure.
You can pump the maximum profits without risking injury due to the design of the Bathmate, which prevents water from getting into the tube and, in turn, causing the pressure is maintained from the beginning.SHOP BATHMATE
What are Bathmate Penis Pumps Used For?
Based on the results of a poll conducted in 2020 by Bathmate, they discovered that 70 percent of respondents had experienced an increase in size.
Premature ejaculation. A slight numbing effect may be achieved using a bathmate hydropump for five to ten minutes immediately prior to engaging in sexual activities.
This may help in allowing in allowing the session to last for longer. You can also avoid premature ejaculation by training your penis to be in a straight position for long durations without any sexual release.
This is another way of stopping premature ejaculation. Even if your penis is pressing on your Bathmate and you aren’t able to get any relief by pumping your legs until you remove it first.
Harder erections. In the same survey that was conducted at the end of 2020, conducted by Bathmate, 76% of respondents claimed to have having stronger erections.
Furthermore you can achieve this by utilizing the pump prior to sexual activity while wearing a penis band.
Once you’ve taken off your Bathmate, the ring will prevent the blood drawn into your penis from draining as fast.
It will help keep your erection in more time, preparing you for your partner.
It is crucial to keep in mind that the ring needs to fit snugly against the body in order for the erection to be maintained, which may cause discomfort for some men.
Stimulation of male organs for sexual stimulation and play. When you get an erection, you could be awed by intense sensations as well as when you regularly experience a strong erection the desire for sexual experiences may rise.
In addition, vacuum penis pumps produce erections while being used however, they also have the capacity to increase the number of natural erections and stronger orgasms.
Penis pumps produce a sucking sensation, which can be very enjoyable, and they can be used to masturbate as well as foreplay in the edging area, as well as for light control and complete dominance.
They are incredibly flexible and adaptable toys.
Although they were not meant to be utilized on other body parts it is possible to get imaginative using these pumps.
Pumps can be put on the clitoris, the nostrils, as well as other erogenous area without danger.
Bathmate Penis Pumps Review For Erectile Dysfunction
Oral medications, drugs that are pushed from the penis’s tip into the tube that is inside the penis, injections of shots into your penis, and surgically installed penile implants have the potential to create adverse effects or fail to function or even be dangerous.
Bathmate Hydropumps when used correctly, increase the oxygenation of the penile tissues, which can help in maintaining the length of the penis after an operation to remove the prostatectomy.
In addition, they can help minimize the possibility of abnormal fibrous tissue growing within the penis, helping to preserve erectile function.
Men with erectile dysfunction who utilize vacuum penis pumps are able to get a hard erection and report a considerable improvement in their sexual satisfaction.
The range of this percentage is between 80-90 percent.
The usage of a Bathmate hydropump for treating erectile dysfunction is, when compared with other treatments, less expensive over the long haul, noninvasive and is able to be used in conjunction with drugs.
In addition, it can assist men in regaining sexual function following surgery.
In treating erectile disfunction with the Bathmate Hydropump you have the option of either applying it right away prior to engaging in sexual activities to boost the flow of blood and create an erection, or establishing a regular routine in which you utilize it for at least five times each week, and gradually progress to 20 minutes of sessions on a daily basis.
This will improve the quality of your natural erections, eliminating the need for you to take Bathmate before you engage in sexual activity.
Penis Pumps & Prostate Health
The shrinkage of the penile and the damage to nerves are both common adverse effects of prostatectomy occurring in approximately 70 percent of patients, and both side effects get worse over time.
Clinical studies have proven that those who make use of the penis pump vacuum are able to keep the size of their penis before surgery and recover sexual function more quickly after surgery.
Natural erections are not as common. This can be the result of postoperative nerve injury that can cause an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching those tissues in the penis. It could be that a deficiency in oxygen may result in the formation of fibrous tissue, and, as a consequence of this, long-term erectile dysfunction.
Based on numerous studies, medical professionals recommend using penis pumps during rehabilitation to help boost the flow of oxygen into the penis, and also to help maintain the tissue.
This helps to prevent this from occurring. In an study carried out in the year 2011 13 men who underwent prostatectomy combined the use of a penis pump and the drug tadalafil (20 mg three times weekly and daily pump usage five days a week) and the results were compared to the 7 men who received a dose of 20 mg of Tadalafil alone.
The control group experienced significantly less improvement in erectile dysfunction.
People who used the penis pump had greater scores for the penile’s hardness on the International Index of Erectile Function.
Additionally, 92 percent of the men who used the penis pump were able to achieve intercourse to orgasm, but only 29 percent of the men in the tadalafil-only category were able to achieve this.
After the procedure, another 42 men were able to use a penile pump on a daily basis for a period duration of 90 consecutive days.
One of the men experienced a reduction in the length of their peniles by at least 0.4 inches.
Comparing to the median of 48 percent of men who experience a substantial reduction in length of the penile after prostatectomy when they are not given rehabilitation with the help of vacuum penis pumps.
The percentage of men who benefit from this method is considerably greater.
Penis pumps that utilize the use of a vacuum have shown a clear and substantial effect.SHOP BATHMATE
Bathmate Review For Peyronie’s Disease
Peyronie’s Disease is a non-cancerous condition in which the penis develops fibrous scar tissue, which results in erections that are extremely painful and bent.
This condition is caused by the development of Peyronie’s disease.
Peyronie’s disease may prevent men from engaging in sexual activity, trigger Erectile dysfunction, and also shorten your penile shaft.
The pressure applied to the penis with penis pumps that are vacuum-operated can cause plaque to break down or be repaired, which ultimately leads to the penis curvature becoming more straight.
The efficacy of penis pumps with vacuum was investigated throughout the course of a year during a study that included 31 males who were diagnosed with the disease Peyronie’s.
The treatment produced significant improvement in the length of the penis and the curvature of the penis also was improved in 21 males.
Patients with Peyronie’s disease are advised to only use an insulin pump if their condition has not changed for at least three years and their curvature has not become severe after two sessions per each day for at least a month.
This is a vital thing to remember.
Do Bathmate Penis Pumps Increase Penis Size?
As per Dr. Christopher Fox, “Men who use penile pumps recreationally report big gains in sizes. Of course, the size decreases if you don’t maintain the pump, but men who do report significant gains in sizes.”
Based on the results of clinical research those who have used penis pumps with vacuum as a treatment for erectile dysfunction report high levels of overall satisfaction.
Bathmate has an claim substantiation page on their site that includes impartial reviews, results and endorsements as well as before-and-after videos of healthy penises. They say they gain 30 percent in the length of their penis and in girth after using the product for six months.
According to a poll carried out by 2020 of 12,000 Bathmate customers Bathmate the product, 81 percent reported that they had more erections, and 70.6% reported having longer erections after using the product for two months.
If only HydroXtreme was taken into consideration, 92.9 percent of users had noticed improved erections and 80 percent of them reported improved or longer erectionsor both.
Your penis will grow in length and circumference if you continue to use it frequently.
You will, however, need to continue utilizing your Bathmate in order for the gains to last for.
If you do not keep up with the workout and you don’t, you’ll get rid of the results, much as when you’re trying to build muscles in the gym.
There isn’t much evidence that these devices create any meaningful long-term gain in terms of size, according to Professor Wylie who is an expert consultant in the field of sexual medicine. In a research study published in 2011, entitled ” Non-invasive methods of penile lengthening: fact or fiction,” the researchers came to the conclusion that there is no evidence to support the belief that penis pumps result in permanent changes to size even if they are not used continuously.
Penile size can be maintained for longer in men who use the penis pump three to five times per week for 20 minutes, but if they stop pumping for even a couple of days and their penis shrinks to the size it was prior to when they began pumping. If you pump your penis, you’ll see a brief increase in size.
By using it for a long time, an already enlarged penis can not only be maintained , but can be substantially increased in size.
This is enough for some men, and when viewed in context, what makes a 20-minute daily exercise different from a skincare routine or a workout of the same length if the result is a considerable boost in confidence at night?SHOP BATHMATE
Which Bathmate Hydropump is Best for Me?
Bathmate Hydropump Bathmate Hydropump product line is offered in a range of sizes, and the product that’s right for you will depend not only on the size you have, but also on what you want to accomplish by using the vacuum penis pump.
If your ideal penis size is a amount of inches or lower when it is in erect position, the model of that product that’s most suitable for you would be theHydroMax3 model of that product.
Other examples of models with numbers include the HydroMax5 model and the HydroMax7 model.
If you’re planning to use the HydroMax5, you’ll need a penis that stands at four inches or more; for the HydroMax7, you’ll need one that stands at minimum 7 inches tall and so on. It is essential to choose the correct dimensions for your Bathmate hydropump to achieve the greatest possible results from it.
This enables a baseline to be established for future improvements however, if the pump is not of the correct size, you may not receive the appropriate pressure, which may result in either zero results, or result that is less impressive or a bad experience.
How to Correctly Measure Your Penis Size
1) Make your measurement using your penis straight.
It is measured along at the highest point of your penis which is the side facing your face when you gaze down on yourself.
It is not measured on the bottom of the penis which is located closer to the testicles.
2) With any excess fat or pubic hair pushed away from you, measure length in inches of your tailbone towards your pubic bone.
3) To measure girth by wrapping the tape measure around your shaft in the point where it is thickest and make a note of the place where the two tape ends meet.
For a start, you can use the Bathmate’s size calculator website to determine the most suitable pump for your measurements, simply enter your measurements of length and girth in the units of measurement of your choice.
The Bathmate Hydropump Product Line
Bathmate provides the Hydro7 kit for users who are new to the sport Bathmate also offers HydroMax and the HydroMax as well as the HydroMax Wide Boy for experienced users as well as their HydroXtreme as well as the HydroXtreme Wide Boy for experienced users who want to achieve the highest increase in size. All of the products are available at their site.
Hydro7 formerly “Bathmate”
This was Bathmate’s first hydropump and was brought to the market in 2006 under the name “Bathmate Hercules.” Hydro7 revolutionized the penile pump market because it was water-based and cost half as much as its closest competitor.
The Hydro7 is ideal for those who have penises that are between 5 and 7 inches length when they are erect and was developed to help the ordinary consumer beginning off.
There are three color options available for the Hydro7 available: white, red and blue.
If you purchase directly from the Bathmate website, all of the company’s hydropumps are covered by a 60-day refund policy during which there are no questions to be asked, a 2-year warranty, as well as free delivery.
Because Bathmate has distribution centers all across the globe Most orders will be processed within five business days and the items will be delivered in non-descript packaging, that is not marked.
Bathmate HydroMax Series
The Hydromax line of penis vacuum pumps has been the commonly used penis pump in the world and has a customer satisfaction score that is higher than 95 percent of those who were surveyed.
The pump has more power than the Hydro7 one, making it suitable for advanced users who are looking for steady but substantial growth or who have a beginning sexual length that is more that 7 inches.
Bathmate HydroXtreme Series
The HydroXtreme series is designed for advanced users who are trying to achieve maximum gains in size as quickly as they can.
The Bathmate HydroXtreme penis pump has handballs as an additional element, which helps to maximize the pressure and gives 35 percent more suction than other pumps.
The HydroXtreme line from Bathmate comes in five different variations Each comes with a free accessory package.
If you’re looking for customers who’ve outgrown conventional vacuum penis pumps The HydroXtreme line of products has options that range in size from HydroXtreme5 to the HydroXtreme11.
HydroXtreme11 HydroXtreme11 is the biggest penis pump that has ever been created.
Cleaning Kit ($46.98). A collection of accessories to maintain the quality of your pump.
This kit is crucial regardless of the fact that it incurs an additional charge during checkout.
This is due to an opportunity for a high level of bacterial growth in warm water, and the pump needs to be maintained free of dirt to ensure that the rubber will keep its flexibility.
Cushion Rings ($14.98. Rings for cushioning that can be added to the pump’s base before usage to make the process of pressing the seal into your pubic bone a more pleasurable and less painful experience.
The Capsule Travel Case ($46.98). A durable case that protects your pump from damage and maintain your privacy while you are on the road.SHOP BATHMATE
How to Get the Most Gains with Your Bathmate Hydropump
What is Jelqing?
Bathmate suggests the usage of jelqing as a manual workout that can be used in addition to bathmate’s Bathmate Hydropumps.
Jalqing originates from the Middle East as a rite of passage that dates to the earliest Arabic civilizations. Jelqing is beneficial in warming the tissues of the penis, preventing fluid retention, and training and making your penis prepared in a safe manner for the more intense pressures that are applied to the penis by the hydraulic pump.
In addition to using your Bathmate Hydropump you should make jelqing an integral part of your routine.
1.) Make sure the penis is warmed up and pliable before increasing blood flow by applying hot water or a warm towel to the region.
This will enable the penis to expand faster.
2) Apply lube, and by using a firm grasp, encircle the base on your semi-erect cock.
Do this repeatedly. If you are moving the grip, make sure you only apply pressure in one direction, working from the base to the tip, and you should not pull the skin back.
3) It is essential that you do not jelq with a full erection; beginners should stop jelqing once their penis is at 50 percent of an effective erection after performing one hundred fifty reps.
The percentage could be increased to seventy five percent, and then to ninety percent; however, novices should not jelq with an entire erection.
Build a Workout Routine With Your Bathmate’s Hydropump
It is essential to maintain the pump if you want to acquire penile growth and keep those you have. Doing this can help sustain those gains.
It involves forming a routine workout routine that is tailored to your personal time limitations, goals, and the amount of effort you believe you are capable of exerting.
People who support the Bathmate Hydropump who have more experience categorize routines as “Newbie,” “Intermediate,” or “Advanced.”
If you’ve been using jelqing for a long time, your level depends on how comfortable you are with the Bathmate Hydropumps.
It is crucial not to overdo it , and to gradually increase to more intense exercises when using a pump for vacuum This is crucial because of the same reason it is crucial not to do too much when you are building muscles.
You can play around using the many Bathmate Hydropump routines offered in every level to see which cause your penis to respond the most favorably.
A simple routine suitable for beginners could be as follows:
- Week 1 & 2 Sessions of pumping that last 5 to 10 minutes four times each week.
- Week 3 and 4 Sessions of pumping that last 10-15 minutes 5 times per week.
- Week 5 & 6: Pumping sessions of 15-20 minutes six times each week.
Make sure you get at minimum one day of rest each week is essential and you shouldn’t exceed six hours of relaxation.SHOP BATHMATE
Alternative Vacuum Penis Pumps to the Bathmate Hydropump
Bathmate Penis pump hydraulic which is evident by its winning of its Venus award for best new product in 2014 and the award for the best male enhancement device in 2012.
Penomet as with Bathmate is basically an air-based vacuum pump which can be utilized in the shower, in the bath, or even as a typical penis air pump.
Its versatility is what makes it a good choice.
Penomet uses the AquaPressure technology to provide the perfect vacuum pressure.
Penomet pumps can be adjusted made of polycarbonate plastics that , according to the company, are nearly unbreakable, and they manufacture five gaiters made from medical-grade silicone, each with the suction force.
When you buy an Penomet that has all five gaiters and you’ll be able to use the same pump as the first time you use it through many years of enhancement and further training. Utilizing several models of Bathmate
When your penis is growing by a certain percentage, all additional gains will be limited to maintenance only till you can upgrade your model that is an increased size as well as a stronger suction. It’s simpler to keep track of your progress in the realms of expansion, training or recovery if you are relying on just one model. Penomet products are available in a range of sizes that include The Force 60, 65, 70, and 75 and the Extreme Force 80 and X85 Monster Gaiter which is the primary competitor to the Bathmate HydroXtreme11.
More than ten years of research and testing, it was discovered that the use of Penomet devices for six months with six sessions per week led to up to a twenty percent increase in length and a 30 percent increase in thickness as well as an improvement in the overall quality of the sexual erection.
Penomet, similar to Bathmate offers a money-back guarantee for the first sixty days, and a warranty which lasts for three consecutive years. A two-year warranty is offered by Bathmate.
The initial investment is the most significant disadvantage for Penomet penis pumps compared to Bathmate Hydropumps.
Comparing it to the Bathmate HydroXtreme11, which retails for $399, Penomet Premium package, which includes all gaiters ranging from the beginner gaiter through the Extreme Force 80 gaiter, has a suggested retail price of $457. Bathmate Produces Pain