In our review of the Bathmate we examined every penis pump included in the Hydro series, including the Hydro, Hydromax, and Hydroextreme models. We offer in-depth testing and analysis services. Bathmate Spartan
With over one million delighted customers, a satisfaction rate of 95 percent, and a patented technique which increases the size of the penis in an average 2-3 inches to up to 5
Bathmate’s penis pumps that are vacuum-filled are a major player in the market for male enhancement products.
The reason is that it can be used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction or Peyronie’s disease, recovery after prostate surgery, a dramatic growth in the length of the penis and girth, or enhanced sexual pleasure, erectile disorder (ED) and Peyronie’s Disease (Peyronie’s) and increased sexual pleasure: erectile enhancement
Everything you must be aware of about Bathmate Hydropumps can be found within this post.SHOP BATHMATE
Bathmate Review: What is Bathmate Penis Pump?
These are the four essential components that you must comprehend:
1.) The Tube in which you are supposed to place your penis.
2.) The Comfort Ring It is worn at the bottom on the male male genitalia (without the testicles). The reason this is named is due to the ability to push the Bathmate tightly into your body, which stops air from entering and leads to the formation of the formation of a vacuum. You won’t be able to expand its size or its circumference if the seal you have is incorrect.
3) The Pump. When you press the penis against your pelvic seat then the water is ejected, and when you relax your grip, your penis is “pumped” through the creation of vacuum pressure. The penis is an elastic skin that is able to endure repeated usage. You have complete control thanks to the fact that you can squeeze lightly or firmly.
4) The Latch Valve. It allows you to alter the pressure. It is able to be closed and opened with only one hand thanks to its ergonomic design.
How Does a Bathmate Hydropump Work?
In the event that the tube gets filled with water from The Bath or Shower, the water pushes out the air through the tube’s interior. tube.
After inserting your penis in the tube, you then apply your Bathmate tightly against your body near the bottom of your penis while securing it in the tube.
Because the comfort ring press against your body it is impossible for any air to enter and create the formation of a vacuum.
When you take water from your tube, an natural reaction creates a vacuum pressure that causes it to force in blood to your penis.
The blood is drawn into your penis to offset the change in pressure inside the tube, putting the heart at a lower pressure. The reason for an erection is an increase in the flow of blood to the penis, and its duration is determined by how sexually stimulated the person is.
An erection could last as long as half an hour. If you are looking to increase its size, you’ll need to work it on a regular basis.
Increases on the dimensions of your penis require a regimen in the same way that muscular growth does.
Bathmate suggests using your water pump every day for at least 4-6 months , for fifteen minutes in total divided into three periods that last five minute each (a total of 3 x 5 minute use).
As your penis grows larger as it gets larger, you’ll need to replace your previous Bathmate with one which is one size bigger.
This is like the way you raise the size of the dumbbells you are using when lifting weights.
How Do I Use a Bathmate Hydropump?
Whatever penile pump you choose from the Bathmate Hydropump product line–the Hydro7 or the HydroMax or the HydroExtreme that you select as the one that will help you achieve your objectives with the greatest efficiency, the manner in which you apply each product to your penis is similar.
1.) Allow yourself 5 minutes to soak in warm water to smooth the skin on your penis and scrotum.
This will decrease the chances that your testicles will get trapped inside the device. When you are ready to make use of the Bathmate gadget, keep your testicles away from the tube by bringing them back using your hand that isn’t being used to position the device.
Even if there is no danger of getting hurt in this situation, it would still be uncomfortable.
2) When you’re at the bathroom, you can hold the Bathmate upside down, so that it’s being sprayed with water, but make sure the black hole at the top of the device is shut.
It is not necessary to close the clasp on your Bathmate in case you intend to be using it in the bathtub. all you have to do is immerse the device in the water.
3) Place your sagging penis into the tube , pressing your Bathmate tightly onto your pubic bone to make sure that the device is sealed properly.
Bathmate penis pump Bathmate penis pump can be tilted either downwards or upwards depending on what is more comfortable for the person using it.
4.) To start pumping to begin, remove the black cap from the device’s top and then lift the cap.
Each time you pump, this will cause small bursts of liquid to be expelled.
You will feel your penis being drawn into the chamber, and you will be able to notice that your skin is stretched.
In the wake of the shift in pressure, the blood vessels within your penile area begin to dilate, which will lead to the formation of an erection.
Because of the way the water distorts your vision, the circumference of your penis will appear like it’s gotten larger.
5.) Before withdrawing your tube’s penis disable the quick-release mechanism by pulling the valve cap upwards to let the vacuum out.
This should be done before removing your penis from the tube. If your Bathmate isn’t placed securely enough into your pubic bone in order to seal the device, pumping while you’re showering can be more difficult since air can enter and cause a decrease in suction.
This can happen if the device is not secured properly.
Begin pumping as soon as the black cap on the end of the device has been removed. If you don’t the water will pour out of your Bathmate hydropump. If you discover that air has gotten trapped between the comfort rings and the pump, you may find that removing the comfort ring before filling and then replacing it at the time of pumping helps make the process easier.
Higher pressure is possible by using pumps that are shorter and faster and lower pressure can be achieved with slow pumps.
It is beneficial to let off the vacuum, refill the device, then start pumping two or three times throughout a 15 to 20 minute session.
This will enable you to achieve the most significant gains possible during each workout.SHOP BATHMATE
Are Bathmate Hydropumps Safe To Use?
As long as they are correctly used and the directions given from the company are followed The Bathmate vacuum pumps don’t cause any negative side effects and are completely non-invasive.
Penis extenders are an alternative to the traditional penis pumps. Penis injuries are possible, and one of the most common causes is the excessive pumping of the genitalia.
If it is done too often or for a long duration, excessive pumping or misuse can cause injury to the tissue, which may result in less sexual erections.
“Men will over-pump,” says Dr. Christopher Fox, a senior lecturer in sexual health at the University of Sydney.
Because of this, there is a possibility of injuries to the penis’ vascular system.
It is highly recommended that the procedure be performed by the therapist for sex who is knowledgeable of what they are doing or another pumper who has prior expertise with the procedure.
The recommendation of experienced users is to ensure that the water is warm. massage the penis to warm up the muscles before beginning the workout, and start with a basic program that lasts between five to ten minutes every day.
Gradually, you can progress to sessions that last twenty minutes.
There’s an exception to this rule if you are taking warfarin or a different type of blood-thinning anticoagulant or if you have any kind of medical condition that impacts how your blood forms clots.
Are there any conditions under which Bathmate Hydropumps or another type of penile pump is regarded to be risk-free?
Fluid retention is one of the negative side effects typically associated with using penile pumps that are water-based.
This occurs in the event that the suction which has drawn blood flow into the penis is also drawing in fluid. This is a sign that the penis has reached its capacity to the max.
As a consequence of this, the skin that covers the penis gets swollen and the penis’s circumference increases.
This has no effect on the growth of the penis. However, it may cause a doughnut-shaped enlargement at the bottom of the penile glans.
After 24 hours, this should go off, though it is dependent on the amount of fluid retention you have. According to the recommendations made by Bathmate according to Bathmate, the most efficient method to avoid fluid retention is to split longer sessions lasting between 15 and 20 minutes into shorter ones that last 4-5 minutes.
Which is Better, Bathmate Hydropumps or Traditional Air Pumps?
Short answer: Bathmate Hydropumps.
The advantages inherent in warm water, which makes the tissues of the penis more flexible and improves the flow of blood through vascular dilation, are utilized in Bathmate pumps in order to increase their efficiency.
Warmth has a conditioning impact on nerves, which stops the discomfort that occurs when stretching, which is something that people who use typical air vacuum pumps commonly report experiencing.
This effect can be replicated by first applying an un-warmed towel to one’s penis for a couple of minutes before using a conventional pump.
However, if you use the pump prior to playing spending more time in preparation will mean more time spent away from the game.
It’s obvious which one of two options – having the feature built into your routine for pumping or adding an extra step – will offer you the greatest level of convenience.
If air pumps are used, it is necessary to keep the penis supple when stretching However, this requirement is avoided by using water.
Water is more dense than air, and can provide the same distribution throughout the penis because of this property.
Bruising is one of the effects that can be triggered by air pumps, and it’s caused by areas of the penis having excess pressure that is applied due to an uneven distribution of air.
The result could be bleeding underneath the skin and tiny red spots on your penis. A gauge that shows the current pressure is typically present on conventional pumps.
If you reach too high there’s no way to let the pressure go, and the air will continue get compressed inside the tube even though there isn’t a means to vent it.
It is up to you to decide what is enough pressure and to ensure that it is not over.
Are you aware of what the ideal air pressure level is for a specific situation?
If you pump too fast or excessively the one-finger valve of Bathmate Hydropumps will be able to relieve the pressure.
You can pump the maximum profits without risking injury due because of the structure of Bathmate, which prevents water from entering the tube, and consequently, the pressure is maintained from the beginning.SHOP BATHMATE
What are Bathmate Penis Pumps Used For?
According to the results of a poll conducted in the year 2020 by Bathmate, they discovered that 70 percent of respondents experienced a size rise.
Premature ejaculation. The effect of numbing can be obtained by using a Bathmate Hydropump for five to ten minutes immediately before engaging in sexual activity.
This can help the session to go on for longer. You can also avoid premature ejaculation by training your penis to stay upright for longer durations with no expectation of sexual release.
This is a different method of stopping premature ejaculation. If your penis is pressuring your Bathmate but you won’t be able to get any relief by pumping your legs, unless you get it removed first.
Harder erections. In the same survey conducted at the end of 2020, conducted by Bathmate 76% of the respondents reported having more powerful erections.
Additionally you can achieve this by using the pump prior to sexual activities while wearing the penis ring.
After you have removed your Bathmate The bandage will stop the blood taken into the penis from escaping as rapidly.
This will maintain your erection for more time, and will prepare you for the possibility of a partner.
It is important to remember that the ring needs to be snug against the body in order for the erection to last, which may cause discomfort for some men.
Stimulation of the male organs for sexual stimulation and play. When you get an erection, you could feel intense excitement and, if you continue to have a powerful erection your desire for sexual encounters can increase.
Not only do vacuum penis pumps produce erections while using them however, these devices also possess the ability to increase the amount of natural erections and stronger orgasms.
Penis pumps give you a squeaking sensation that can be quite enjoyable.
Additionally, they can be used for masturbation , as well as foreplay with edging, light control, and total domination.
They are incredibly versatile and versatile toys.
Despite the fact that they weren’t intended to be used on other body parts it is possible to get imaginative with the pumps.
The pump can be utilized on the clitoris, the nostrils, as well as other erogenous area without risk.
Bathmate Penis Pumps Review For Erectile Dysfunction
Oral medications or pharmaceuticals that are pushed through the tip of your penis into the tube within the penis, injections of shots into your penis, as well as surgically installed penile implants all are prone to cause adverse reactions or fail to function or could be very hazardous.
Bathmate Hydropumps when used correctly, increase the oxygenation of penile tissues, which can help in maintaining penis length following an operation to remove the prostatectomy.
They also help reduce the risk of abnormal fibrous tissue forming in the penis, which helps to maintain erectile function.
Men with erectile dysfunction who utilize vacuum penis pumps can enjoy a hard erection and have a noticeable increase in their sexual satisfaction.
The range of this percentage is from 80 to 90 percent.
The treatment of a Bathmate Hydropump for treating erectile dysfunction is as compared to other treatment options, less expensive over the long haul, noninvasive, and it can be utilized alongside other medications.
Additionally, it may aid men in regaining their sexual function following surgery.
In treating erectile disfunction with the Bathmate Hydropump you have the option of making use of it right before engaging in sexual activity to stimulate the flow of blood and produce an erection, or establishing your routine to ensure that you utilize it for a minimum of five days per week and work your way up to 20 minutes of sessions on a daily basis.
This will improve the quality of your natural erections, getting rid of the need to use Bathmate before to sexual activity.
Penis Pumps & Prostate Health
Nerve damage and shrinkage of the penile are both common side effects after prostatectomy, occurring in approximately 70 percent of patients and both of them get worse over time.
Clinical studies have demonstrated that individuals who utilize the penis pump vacuum can maintain the size of their penis before surgery and recover sexual function more quickly after surgery.
Natural erections are not as common. This may be the result of postoperative nerve injury, which can lead to a deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching tissue of penis. It could be that a deficiency in oxygen could result in the development of fibrous tissue, and in turn, in long-term erectile dysfunction.
Based on a number of studies, medical professionals recommend the use of penis vacuum pumps during rehabilitation to help increase blood flow into the penis and maintain tissue.
This helps to prevent this from happening. For instance, in a study that was conducted in the year 2011, 13 men undergoing prostatectomy combined the use of penis pumps with tadalafil (20 mg 3 times weekly and daily pump usage five days a week), and the results were compared with the control group of seven men who took 20 mg of tadalafil alone.
The control group experienced significantly less improvement in erectile dysfunction.
Those who used the penis pump received higher scores for penile toughness in the International Index of Erectile Function.
In addition, 92 percent of the men in the penis pump group were able to achieve intercourse to orgasm, but the 29 percent who were men in the tadalafil-only category were able to do so.
Following the surgery, another 42 men were able to use the penile pump on a regularly scheduled basis for a period of 90 days.
Only one of the men experienced a reduction in penile length of at minimum 0.4 inches.
Comparing to the median of 48 percent of males who experience a substantial reduction in penile length following prostatectomy when they are not given rehabilitation with the help of vacuum penis pumps, the proportion of men who benefit from this method is considerably more.
Penis pumps using the use of a vacuum have shown a clear and significant effect.SHOP BATHMATE
Bathmate Review For Peyronie’s Disease
Peyronie’s disease is a non-cancerous disease that causes the penis to develop fibrous scar tissue that results in erections that are extremely painful and bent.
The cause of this condition is the development of the disease Peyronie’s.
Peyronie’s Disease can prevent men from engaging in sexual activity, trigger Erectile dysfunction, and also shorten your penile shaft.
The pressure applied to the penis with vacuum penis pumps may cause plaque to degrade or be repaired. This eventually leads to the penis curvature becoming straighter.
The effectiveness of using vacuum penis pumps was studied over the course of a year during a study that included 31 males diagnosed with Peyronie’s disease.
The treatment led to considerable improvements in the length of the penis, and the curvature of the penis also was improved in 21 males.
Patients with Peyronie’s disease are advised to only use an insulin pump if the condition hasn’t changed for at least 3 years and their curvature has not become excessive after two sessions every each day for at least a month.
This is an important aspect to be aware of.
Do Bathmate Penis Pumps Increase Penis Size?
According to the doctor Dr. Christopher Fox, “Men who use penile pumps recreationally report big gains in sizes. Of course, the size decreases if you don’t maintain the pump, but men who do report significant gains in sizes.”
According to the results of research conducted in clinical settings the patients who utilize penis pumps with vacuum as a treatment for erectile dysfunction report the highest levels of satisfaction overall.
Bathmate has the claim to be substantiated on their site that includes impartial reviews, results and endorsements as well as before-and-after videos of individuals with healthy penises who claim to gain 30 percent in penis length and girth after using the product for six months.
Based on a survey conducted by 2020 on 12,000 Bathmate customers Bathmate 81% of them claimed to be having more erections. 70.6% reported having longer erections after using the product for 2 months.
When only the HydroXtreme was looked at, 92.9 percent of users had noticed improved erections and 80 percent reported improved or longer sexual erections, or both.
Your penis will increase in both length and circumference if you continue to use it frequently.
However, you’ll require you to use your Bathmate to ensure that your gains to last.
If you don’t keep up your workout and you don’t, you’ll get rid of the results like when you’re working to build muscle at the gym.
There isn’t much evidence that these devices create any meaningful long-term gain in terms of size, says Professor Wylie, who is an expert consultant in the field of sexual medicine. In a research study published in 2011, titled ” Non-invasive methods of penile lengthening: fact or fiction,” the researchers arrived at the conclusion that there was no evidence to back the notion that penis pumps result in permanent changes to size even when they’re not being used regularly.
Penile size can be maintained for longer in those who use the penis pump three to five times per week for twenty minutes, but should they stop using the pump for even a few days the penis will shrink back in size to what it used to be before they started pumping it. However, if it is pumping your penis it will notice a slight increase in size.
With continued use an already larger penis can not only be maintained , but can be substantially increased in size.
This is sufficient for certain men, but when viewed in context, how is a regular 20-minute exercise different than a skin routine or a workout that’s the same length, when the outcome is a substantial boost in confidence in the bedroom?SHOP BATHMATE
Which Bathmate Hydropump is Best for Me?
Bathmate Hydropump Bathmate Hydropump product line is available in various sizes. The size that is right for you will not just be based on the size of your current pump but also on what you intend to achieve with the vacuum penis pump.
If your normal penis size is that number of inches or less when in erect position, the model of that product that’s most suitable for you will be HydroMax3.HydroMax3 model of that product.
Other models that have numbers are the HydroMax5 model as well as HydroMax7 model. HydroMax7 model.
If you want to utilize the HydroMax5 it will require a penis that stands at four inches or more; for the HydroMax7 it’s a penis that is at seven inches or more; and so on. It is vital to choose the right dimensions for your Bathmate hydropump to obtain the most effective outcomes.
This enables a baseline to be established for future improvements; but, if the pump is not the appropriate size, you may not get the right pressure, which may produce no results, outcomes that are less appealing or even a negative experience.
How to Correctly Measure Your Penis Size
1.) Measure yourself using your penis upright.
Penis length is determined from its top, that is, the one facing yourself when you look down at yourself.
It is not measured along the bottom of the penis that is nearer to the testicles.
2) With any excess fat or pubic hair pushed away from you, measure how far your tailbone extends back towards your pubic bone.
3) To determine girth to determine girth, wrap the tape measure around your shaft at the point where it is the thickest.
Make a note of the place where the two tape ends meet.
To begin using the size calculator on Bathmate’s website to choose the best pump for your dimensions just enter your length and girth measurements in the measurement units you prefer.
The Bathmate Hydropump Product Line
Bathmate offers their Hydro7 kit for first-time users Bathmate also offers the HydroMax and HydroMax Wide Boy for experienced users as well as their HydroXtreme and HydroXtreme Wide Boy for experienced users who want to achieve the highest increase in size. All of the products are available at their site.
Hydro7 formerly “Bathmate”
The first pump from Bathmate was a hydropump, and it was introduced to the market in 2006 under the name “Bathmate Hercules.” Hydro7 revolutionized the market for penile pumps because it was water-based and priced half the price of its closest rival.
The Hydro7 is suitable for people who have penises that are between 5 and 7 inches length when they’re erect and was created to accommodate the typical consumer at the beginning.
Three color options are available for the Hydro7: red, white, and blue.
When purchased directly on the Bathmate website, all of the company’s hydropumps are covered by a 60-day guarantee of refund, where there are no questions asked, a 2-year warranty, with free shipping.
Because Bathmate has distribution warehouses across the globe Most orders will be fulfilled within five business days and all products are delivered in unremarkable packaging, that is not marked.
Bathmate HydroMax Series
The Hydromax line of vacuum penis pumps are the largest and most commonly utilized penis pump in the world and has a customer satisfaction score that is higher than that of 92 percent of people who were surveyed.
This pump is more powerful than the Hydro7, making it suitable for those seeking an increase in size that is gradual, but not overwhelming or those with an erection length that is longer that 7 inches.
Bathmate HydroXtreme Series
The HydroXtreme series is designed for users with advanced skills looking to make the highest gains in size as swiftly as possible.
This Bathmate HydroXtreme penis pump has a handball set as an additional part that helps increase pressure and provides 35 % more suction than similar pumps.
The HydroXtreme line by Bathmate has five different versions Each comes with an accessory kit for free.
If you’re looking for customers who’ve outgrown conventional vacuum penis pumps and require a more powerful penis pump, the HydroXtreme line of products has options that range in size from HydroXtreme5 to the HydroXtreme11.
HydroXtreme11 HydroXtreme11 is the largest penis pump to ever been developed.
Cleaning Kit ($46.98). A collection of accessories to ensure the longevity of your pump.
This kit is crucial even though it is charged an additional fee when you pay.
It is due to the possibility of high levels of bacterial growth in water that is warm, and the pump needs to be kept clear to ensure that the rubber will remain malleable.
Cushion Rings ($14.98. Rings for cushioning that can be added to the pump’s base prior to use, making the procedure of pressing the seal into your pubic bone a more pleasurable and less painful.
The Capsule Travel Case ($46.98). A durable case that will protect your pump from damage and keep your personal information private while you travel.SHOP BATHMATE
How to Get the Most Gains with Your Bathmate Hydropump
What is Jelqing?
Bathmate suggests using jelqing as a manual workout to be employed in addition to the Bathmate Hydropumps.
Jalqing is a tradition that dates back to the Middle East as a rite of passage dating back to the ancient Arabic civilizations. Jelqing is beneficial in warming the penile tissues, stopping the retention of fluid, as well as training and making your penis prepared in a safe manner for the more intense pressures put on it through the pump.
In addition to using your Bathmate Hydropump, you must make jelqing an integral an integral part of your routine.
1) Make sure that the penis is warmed up and flexible prior to expanding circulation by applying warm or hot towels over the area.
This will enable the penis to expand more easily.
2.) Apply lube, and by using a firm grasp, encircle the base of the semi-erectcock.
Do this several times. If you are moving the grip, make sure you only apply pressure in one direction, moving from the base to the tip. You must be careful not to pull the foreskin back.
3.) It is crucial to never jelq a full erection; beginners should stop jelqing once their penis is at fifty percent of an erection after performing one hundred fifty reps.
This percentage can be increased to seventy-five percent, then ninety percent. However, novices should not jelq with full erections.
Build a Workout Routine With Your Bathmate’s Hydropump
It’s essential to keep pumping your pump if you’re hoping to gain penile growth and also keep those you have. This will allow you to maintain those gains.
This involves creating a consistent exercise regimen that is tailored to your personal time limitations, goals, and the amount of effort you think you are capable of exerting.
People who support the Bathmate Hydropump with more experience categorize routines as “Newbie,” “Intermediate,” or “Advanced.”
No matter if you’ve been using jelqing for a long time, your level will be determined by the degree to which comfortable you are with the Bathmate Hydropumps.
It is essential not to overdo the exercise and gradually progress to more intense exercises when using a vacuum penis pump and this is because of the same reason it is important not to do too much when you are building muscles.
You can play around with the various Bathmate Hydropump routines that are available inside each level to determine which ones will cause your penis to react the most favorable.
A simple routine that is suitable for beginners would go something like this:
- Week 1 & 2 Sessions of pumping that last 5 to 10 minutes, 4 times each week.
- Week 3 and 4: Pumping sessions of 10-15 minutes 5 times per week.
- Week 5 & 6 5 and 6: Pumping sessions lasting between 15 and 20 mins, 6 times every week.
Make sure you get at least one day of relaxation each week is essential and you shouldn’t exceed six sessions.SHOP BATHMATE
Alternative Vacuum Penis Pumps to the Bathmate Hydropump
Bathmate Penis pump hydraulic, which is evident by its winning of the Venus award for best new product in 2014 as well as the prize for the most effective male enhancement device in 2012.
Penomet is similar to Bathmate is basically an water-based vacuum device that may be used in the shower, the bath, or even as an air penis pump.
Its versatility makes it a great choice.
Penomet makes use of the AquaPressure technology to provide the perfect vacuum pressure.
Penomet pumps are adjustable made of polycarbonate plastics that the company claims are almost unbreakable. Furthermore, they have five gaiters made of medical-grade silicone. Each has the suction force.
When you buy a Penomet with all 5 gaiters, you’ll have the ability to use the same pump that you used the very first time you utilize it to the end of many years of enhancement and further training. Using multiple models of Bathmate
As soon as your penis has grown by a certain percentage, any additional gains you achieve will be restricted to maintenance up to the time you purchase a new model that is a larger size as well as a greater suction. It is easier to track your progress in the areas of training, growth, or recovery if you are relying on just one model. Penomet’s products are available in various sizes, including those of the Force 60, 65, 70, and 75 as well as their Extreme Force 80 and X85 Monster Gaiter which is the principal competitor to the Bathmate HydroXtreme11.
Over 10 years of research and tests, it was concluded that the use of Penomet devices for six months, with 6 sessions per week lead to up to a twenty per cent increase in length, a thirty percent rise in thickness as well as an improvement with regards to the general quality of erection.
Penomet, like Bathmate offers a money-back guarantee for the first sixty days as well as a guarantee that lasts for three years. A warranty of two years is offered by Bathmate.
The initial investment is the biggest drawback of Penomet penis pumps when compared the Bathmate Hydraulic Pumps.
When compared to the Bathmate HydroXtreme11, which retails at $399, the Penomet Premium package, which comprises all gaiters ranging from the novice gaiter through the Extreme Force 80 gaiter, comes with a suggested retail price of $457. Bathmate Spartan